WILSON EDUARDO COBA ITURRALDE
Pollution of rivers
And its effects on the areas
Coastal and the sea
Maritime pollution is defined as the “Introduction by man, directly or indirectly, of substances or energies in the marine environment that produce such harmful effects as they damage the living resources, danger to human health, obstacle to Marine activities, deterioration To the quality of the sea water for its use, and reduction of the tourists .
(Approximately 3.6 billion people) is located on the coasts or Close to them, especially in urban areas, where a Coral reefs, coastal lagoons and other inter-Critical, some unique in the world, such as mangrove forests, Directly into the ocean. As a consequence, many ecosystems Land and the sea, have bee altered beyond their capacity to land. 90% of pollutants are transported by rivers to the Of the waste produced there is Product of human activities taking place on the surface Recovery. sea. On the other hand, between 70% and 80% of the world population Than 70% -75% of global marine pollution .
therefore in this essay the question that arises :
Why should we care for the seas ?
This concept of marine pollution has been reformulated .To include a wide range of degradation factors from the fringes .Coastal and marine environments, with Agenda 21 being the Made the major contributions to include and differentiate the sources
Terrestrial marine pollution. These are all varied Point and non-point sources that contribute to the Contamination of the sea and pollutants transported by Rivers, estuaries, canals and other watercourses, including Filtration to the sea and from surface flows and As well as underwater sewage outfalls.The importance of the contribution of rivers as a means of pollutants to the sea was recognized for the first time in the FAO Technical Conference on Marine Pollution and its Effects on Living Resources (Rome, 8-9 December 1970),Where it was established that most of the pollution that comes To the sea does it through rivers and coastal runoff Producing important effects on estuaries and living resources (1971). In l975, the Joint Interagency Group of United Nations Conference on the Scientific Problems of Pollution Marine Environment (today the Joint Group on Environmental Problems Marine Environment, GESAMP), incorporated this route as one of the “Members” of the Mass Balance Equation, (GESAMP, 1975). Subsequently, in the research project “Impact of Rivers in Ocean Systems “(River inputs to ocean systems) Described the rivers as “the main route” of introduction to the sea of Contaminants produced by human activity and by causes (Lerman, 1981). This was reiterated by the 3rd Conference International Conference on Environmental Management of Closed Seas EMECS, (Stockholm, Sweden, 15-17 August, 1997). At the regional level, in 1996, the XI Meeting of Ministers of Environment of Latin America and the Caribbean (Buenos Aires, Argentina November 11-12, 1996), recognized as the principal Environmental problem of the region, pollution of rivers
Diffuse sources more evident correspond to agriculture, for the use of pesticides and insecticides and input waste of agricultural inputs and remains of plants and animals. many times are produce pollution of aquifer. the forestry intensive, especially plantation, also is to source diffuse of contaminants and produce, like farming, loads of nutrients, pesticides and sediment. the main effect of these activities is the increase in mobilizing sediments, nutrients and particulate matter. the main contaminants and processes that negatively affect.in Rivers flow at sea originates about 80% of contaminants affecting stripes coastal. Rivers are peculiarity concentrate pollutants captan in basins some key points in the Costa Marina, where precisely there ecosystems highly sensitive to playing species both freshwater as Salt, such as estuaries (Kramer, chouhury and kampa, 2000). basically occur alteration of ecological functions, reduction of biological diversity, damage to aquatic habitats and pollution of channels low and Marine ecosystems and effects in human health. the loss of species (for these purposes) it is very marked. globally, a number very important. (National Geographic. (2013). Marine pollution. February 23, 2016, National Geographic Website: http://www.nationalgeographic.es)
Decomposition of organic material contained in sediments represents an oxygen demand which, when combined with stratification physical, leads to create funds anóxicos and to produce mortality fish (fish kills). the remineralización of nutrients in the background, during the processes decomposition, made of the sea floor a source continuous or gradual and additional nutrients, which could induce the eutroficación of water. wildlife bentónica may be covered with particles sediment and disappear, affecting the recruitment of species. known in the great Rivers only part of sediment produced in their basins high reaches the sea, the rest remains stored or is deposited either temporarily or permanently in plans flood of such Rivers. small Rivers of character torrential, generally have limited plans flood, so a proportion large sediment produced and transported comes sea (gesamp, 1993). although most of pollution problems of coastal areas are nature local, many of them acquire dimensions transnational to transfer frontiers, so your pollution, matter both a country, country groups and to the Basin Marina or River, as a whole. in the case of contamination with heavy metals, this is usually local, However, some have reached a regional importance or even global. between these Minerals, Mercury, lead and cadmium, are the elements known more dangerous (gesamp, 2001, 1990). at present there are a total 145 countries that have territory within basins international of them, 21 found entirely within basins international, 19 or more basins are shared by five or more riparian countries. in them, water quality and quantity have been reason according and disputes (Wolf, 2001). in the region a 60 basins are shared by two or more nations and as estimated about 71% of the flow surface of all the Latin America and Caribbean corresponds to basins shared spanning 55% of its territory (dourojeanni and jouravlev, 2002). also the most countries share coasts containing ecosystems and shares and coasts affected by the drainage of Rivers, some of these ecosystems and resources have also been the subject of dispute and alliances. coastal areas where lead Rivers in the sea (Delta and estuaries), are very important to define the characteristics of coastal waters. due to differences in densities, fresh water fleet on seawater contributing stratification of coastal waters. stratification is an important mechanism to consider in the management of contamination of coastal waters as it relates to stay and distribution of pollution in these waters.
( CONSEQUENCES OF POLLUTION IN MARINE LIFE. FEBRUARY 23, 2016, OF BLIGOO WEBSITE: HTTP://ELMUNDOTESONRIE.BLIGOO.CL/COM)
Man uses natural raw materials as if they were inexhaustible; The final products and waste materials are dumped into the ground, into the water and recently into the open ocean as if they could be assimilated without any change.
Man has dedicated himself from the most distant antiquity to the maritime and fishing activities, but we must not forget that the exploitation should not be excessive, to avoid the extinction of the living beings that live there.
When the water of the rivers is combined with that of the seas, the rivers are polluted by the pollution of the rivers, causing poisoning of the fish, which leads to a decrease in fish production in the coastal zones, due to the high mortality of the rivers. Themselves.
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CONSEQUENCES OF POLLUTION IN MARINE LIFE. FEBRUARY 23, 2016,
(National Geographic. (2013). Marine pollution. February 23, 2016, National Geographic Website: http://www.nationalgeographic.es)