Mathematics is the science that deals with the logic of shape, quantity and arrangement. Math is all around us, in everything we do.

**History of mathematics**

Several civilizations — in China, India, Egypt, Central America and Mesopotamia — contributed to mathematics as we know it today.

Sumerians were the first people to develop a counting system. Mathematicians developed arithmetic, which includes basic operations, multiplication, fractions and square roots. The Sumerians’ system passed through the Akkadian Empire to the Babylonians around 300 B.C. Six hundred years later, in America, the Mayans developed elaborate calendar systems and were skilled astronomers.

**Math and the Greeks**

- The Ionian School, founded by Thales
- The Pythagorean School, founded by Pythagoras
- The Eleatic School, which included Zeno of Elea
- The Sophist School
- The Platonic School, founded by Plato
- The School of Eudoxus, founded by Eudoxus
- The School of Aristotle, also known as the Lyceum

**Development of calculus**

Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz independently developed the foundations for calculus. Calculus development went through three periods: anticipation, development and rigorization.

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I think the use of animals for such research is needed to know a results that can be applied in humans but as long as there is a responsibility to the animals.

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